Safety in use
Flawless, reliable and functional safety - because the details matter.
Flawless, reliable and functional safety - because the details matter.
Safety in use, originally part of accessibility, provides more convenience and comfort for everyone. Automatic drives open sliding and rotating doors as if by magic as soon as you approach them. Thanks to sophisticated door seals, problematic thresholds can be dispensed with. This is something that not only people with limited mobility will appreciate, but also parents with prams or small children, people carrying heavy shopping or those with travel luggage.
And so, what was originally something only forward-thinking investors and planners would include has become a standard feature in construction.
Contact-free passage is not only convenient, it also reduces the risk of tripping and the transmission of pathogens – which is why automatic doors are such a vital component of medical buildings.
But automatic doors also increase user-friendliness in other contexts, for example in buildings with a high footfall such as shopping centres, railway stations and airports but also high-end housing. Robust automatic doors made from steel profiles with internal door drives ensure low-maintenance operation and smooth functioning over the long term.
Anti-finger-trap doors protect against accidental injury. This is a safety issue not only in kindergartens and schools but also in frequently visited, publicly accessible buildings. The safety of doors in use is governed by DIN 18650-1 and -2, and by EN 16005.
EN 16005 explicitly states that:
Power operated doors must have protection against the risk of trapped fingers.
Anti-finger-trap doors by Jansen meet this requirement with additional accessories that reduce the size of the gap on the secondary closing edge to the eight millimetres stipulated in the standard. Additional requirements such as fire and smoke protection can also be integrated.
Floor-to-ceiling windows in homes or full-glass façades in commercial buildings flood the interiors with light. But these transparent structures must also prevent falls, as required by building regulations. Although the height from which such protection must be provided varies from country to country, the goal is always the same:
Prevent people from cutting themselves and falling if they accidentally collide with the glass and to protect people on lower levels from falling shards of glass.
The assessment of glass building elements that serve as barriers is governed by DIN 18008 Part 4, which is concerned with the impact resistance of the laminated safety glass LSG and with the load-bearing characteristics of the remaining glass if it is broken. The standard, which is derived from the earlier TRAV rules (technical rules for barrier glazing), distinguishes between three categories: A (the glazing is the sole anti-fall protection means), B (a continuous rail is also provided) and C (the glazing merely has an infill function).
Heavy-duty steel profile systems by Jansen in combination with suitable laminated safety glass (LSG) create large-scale façades and fixed glazing capable of preventing falls. Glazing that extends to down to the floor and that can be opened must be provided with an external anti-fall device in the form of a railing or a glass parapet.
Devices for securing these safety means can be integrated discretely in steel profile systems by Jansen. Unlike railings, glass parapets and the like do not compromise the transparency of the façade or the incidence of light. Their slick simplicity provides for a clean and attractive solution.
Automatic doors, entrances without thresholds, daylit rooms: building for accessibility has many different aspects. They are all intended to allow people of any age group to use their apartments, houses and public spaces without outside assistance and without any form of restriction. Many people think that building for accessibility also takes account of wheelchair users, but that is generally not the case.
Some of the flowery terminology used above all in commercial property listings makes things even more confusing. But the definitions given in the standard clearly distinguish between phrases like "accessible" and "wheelchair-friendly".
Operating force is the force required to open or close a window or door. Steel and also glass are heavy materials, and the higher the safety requirements for the building element, the heavier the constructions become. Nevertheless, windows and doors made of steel profile systems must also be easy to operate.
The DIN EN 14351-1 product standard for windows and external doors regulates the standard according to which operating forces are tested and classified. The criteria for the classification can be found in DIN 18055; values for windows up to class 2 and for doors up to class 4 are provided. The classification of the operating force of windows and doors, in turn, is carried out according to two different standards: For windows, the classification standard DIN EN 13115 is used (class 1 = 100 Nm, 2 = 30 Nm), for exterior doors DIN EN 12217 (class 2 = 50Nm, class 3 = 25Nm, 4 = 10Nm). The following applies to all components: The higher the operating class, the easier it is to operate
It is the task of the planner to determine the applicable, necessary or even desired requirements for his building
For barrier-free construction, for example, DIN 18040-1 and DIN 18040-2 require that doors can be opened and closed with little effort. Otherwise, automatic door systems are required
The Janisol 1 window system is tested and approved for Class 1 in accordance with DIN EN 13115. The steel profile systems for doors are classified as Class 2 in accordance with DIN EN 12217. The possibility of automation and thus the use in the area of barrier-free construction is given for all door systems.
DIN 18040 identifies what is meant by ‘accessible’ and ‘wheelchair-friendly’ – for public buildings in Part 1, for residential buildings in Part 2 and for public spaces in Part 3. DIN 18040-2 makes a distinction between public areas and private residential areas. And as in DIN 18040-1, accessibility includes wheelchair users in the public sphere. However, in the residential sphere, other provisions apply – a wheelchair-friendly living space is subject to additional requirements. This means that an accessible home is not necessarily wheelchair-friendly. But a wheelchair-friendly home is always accessible.
Jansen meets the requirements of DIN 18040 with door systems that dispense with the need for thresholds. Either with a drop gasket or a drop gasket with a semicircular threshold that is at most 20 millimetres high and is easy to cross even with small wheels – be it a push-car or a walking frame.
The terms "escape route" and "rescue route" are often used synonymously, and sometimes they are even merged as ‘escape and rescue route’. The difference lies in how they are used:
A rescue route is supposed to allow rescue workers to get people out of danger. An escape route is for users to get themselves to safety.
Escape and rescue routes are therefore subject to special requirements. In particular, smoke and flames should be prevented from spreading in the event of a fire. Tightly closing fire and smoke control doors constructed from steel profile systems reliably seal off flames and smoke. Glazed fire and smoke control doors also allow people to see through and thus orient themselves quickly.
Doors on escape routes can be designed in accordance with DIN EN 179 as emergency exit doors, or with DIN EN 1125 as panic doors. Crucial assessment criteria are the number of people in the building at the same time, the length of the rescue routes and the probability of panic breaking out among users in the event of danger.
Alongside the requirements regarding emergency exit push bars and panic bolts, doors on escape routes generally also need to meet fire and smoke protection requirements, or be secure against break-in. And despite all of this, they should be visually appealing in their design, and harmonise attractively with the overall design. Planning attractively designed, safe escape and rescue routes with steel profiles is a complex task that Jansen tackles on a daily basis. Countless tested systems are available that leave no wishes unfulfilled in terms of element size, light incidence and transparency.
Differential climate properties refer to the deformation behaviour of materials under different thermal loads. On the face of it, this does not appear to be particularly relevant to safety, but the extent to which windows and doors are distorted when subjected to heat and/or humidity has a significant impact on their functionality
If a frame and door leaf or window sash warps, this creates gaps through which cold air can be drawn in as a draught. Depending on the aspect of the building component in question, the temperature difference between the outside and inside can be considerable, which can cause susceptible materials to become warped.
DIN EN 1121 specifies the testing procedure for the differential climate properties of windows and doors, which are classified according to DIN EN 12219. This specifies the requirements regarding the test climate in order from points a to e; class d, for example, is based on a temperature differential of 40°C. Doors in class 3 (d), however, suffer a maximum distortion in length and width of four millimetres, even under these extreme conditions. The Jansen range includes door profiles that have been tested up to class 3 (e): These doors made from torsion-resistant steel profile systems can withstand a temperature difference of up to 55°C.